Geomorphic evolution of the Malta Escarpment and implications for the Messinian evaporative drawdown in the eastern Mediterranean Sea

Aaron Micallef, Angelo Camerlenghi, Aggeliki Georgiopoulou, Daniel Garcia-Castellanos, Marc André Gutscher, Claudio Lo Iacono, Veerle A.I. Huvenne, Joshu J. Mountjoy, Charles K. Paull, Timothy Le Bas, Daniele Spatola, Lorenzo Facchin, Daniela Accettella

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Carbonate escarpments are submarine limestone and dolomite cliffs that have been documented in numerous sites around the world. Their geomorphic evolution is poorly understood due to difficulties in assessing escarpment outcrops and the limited resolution achieved by geophysical techniques across their steep topographies. The geomorphic evolution of carbonate escarpments in the Mediterranean Sea has been influenced by the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC). During the MSC (5.97–5.33 Ma), the Mediterranean Sea became a saline basin due to a temporary restriction of the Atlantic-Mediterranean seaway, resulting in the deposition of more than one million cubic kilometres of salt. The extent and relative chronology of the evaporative drawdown phases associated to the MSC remain poorly constrained. In this paper we combine geophysical and sedimentological data from the central Mediterranean Sea to reconstruct the geomorphic evolution of the Malta Escarpment and infer the extent and timing of evaporative drawdown in the eastern Mediterranean Sea during the MSC. We propose that, during a MSC base-level fall, fluvial erosion formed a dense network of canyons across the Malta Escarpment whilst coastal erosion developed extensive palaeoshorelines and shore platforms. The drivers of geomorphic evolution of the Malta Escarpment after the MSC include: (i) canyon erosion by submarine gravity flows, with the most recent activity taking place <2600 cal. years BP; (ii) deposition by bottom currents across the entire depth range of the Malta Escarpment; (iii) tectonic deformation in the southern Malta Escarpment in association with a wrench zone; (iv) widespread, small-scale sedimentary slope failures preconditioned by oversteepening and loss of support due to canyon erosion, and triggered by earthquakes. We carry out an isostatic restoration of the palaeoshorelines and shore platforms on the northern Malta Escarpment to infer an evaporative drawdown of 1800–2000 m in the eastern Mediterranean Sea during the MSC. We interpret the occurrence of pre-evaporite sedimentary lobes in the western Ionian Basin as suggesting that either evaporative drawdown and canyon formation predominantly occurred before salt deposition, or that only the latest salt deposition at the basin margin occurred after the formation of the sedimentary lobes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)264-283
Number of pages20
JournalGeomorphology
Volume327
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Feb 2019

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Messinian
escarpment
drawdown
salinity
canyon
shore platform
salt
erosion
basin
Mediterranean Sea
carbonate
coastal erosion
gravity flow
bottom current
slope failure
evaporite
cliff
chronology
dolomite
outcrop

Keywords

  • Geomorphic evolution
  • Malta Escarpment
  • Messinian salinity crisis
  • Palaeoshoreline
  • Sea level drawdown
  • Submarine canyon

Cite this

Micallef, Aaron ; Camerlenghi, Angelo ; Georgiopoulou, Aggeliki ; Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel ; Gutscher, Marc André ; Lo Iacono, Claudio ; Huvenne, Veerle A.I. ; Mountjoy, Joshu J. ; Paull, Charles K. ; Le Bas, Timothy ; Spatola, Daniele ; Facchin, Lorenzo ; Accettella, Daniela. / Geomorphic evolution of the Malta Escarpment and implications for the Messinian evaporative drawdown in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. In: Geomorphology. 2019 ; Vol. 327. pp. 264-283.
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abstract = "Carbonate escarpments are submarine limestone and dolomite cliffs that have been documented in numerous sites around the world. Their geomorphic evolution is poorly understood due to difficulties in assessing escarpment outcrops and the limited resolution achieved by geophysical techniques across their steep topographies. The geomorphic evolution of carbonate escarpments in the Mediterranean Sea has been influenced by the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC). During the MSC (5.97–5.33 Ma), the Mediterranean Sea became a saline basin due to a temporary restriction of the Atlantic-Mediterranean seaway, resulting in the deposition of more than one million cubic kilometres of salt. The extent and relative chronology of the evaporative drawdown phases associated to the MSC remain poorly constrained. In this paper we combine geophysical and sedimentological data from the central Mediterranean Sea to reconstruct the geomorphic evolution of the Malta Escarpment and infer the extent and timing of evaporative drawdown in the eastern Mediterranean Sea during the MSC. We propose that, during a MSC base-level fall, fluvial erosion formed a dense network of canyons across the Malta Escarpment whilst coastal erosion developed extensive palaeoshorelines and shore platforms. The drivers of geomorphic evolution of the Malta Escarpment after the MSC include: (i) canyon erosion by submarine gravity flows, with the most recent activity taking place <2600 cal. years BP; (ii) deposition by bottom currents across the entire depth range of the Malta Escarpment; (iii) tectonic deformation in the southern Malta Escarpment in association with a wrench zone; (iv) widespread, small-scale sedimentary slope failures preconditioned by oversteepening and loss of support due to canyon erosion, and triggered by earthquakes. We carry out an isostatic restoration of the palaeoshorelines and shore platforms on the northern Malta Escarpment to infer an evaporative drawdown of 1800–2000 m in the eastern Mediterranean Sea during the MSC. We interpret the occurrence of pre-evaporite sedimentary lobes in the western Ionian Basin as suggesting that either evaporative drawdown and canyon formation predominantly occurred before salt deposition, or that only the latest salt deposition at the basin margin occurred after the formation of the sedimentary lobes.",
keywords = "Geomorphic evolution, Malta Escarpment, Messinian salinity crisis, Palaeoshoreline, Sea level drawdown, Submarine canyon",
author = "Aaron Micallef and Angelo Camerlenghi and Aggeliki Georgiopoulou and Daniel Garcia-Castellanos and Gutscher, {Marc Andr{\'e}} and {Lo Iacono}, Claudio and Huvenne, {Veerle A.I.} and Mountjoy, {Joshu J.} and Paull, {Charles K.} and {Le Bas}, Timothy and Daniele Spatola and Lorenzo Facchin and Daniela Accettella",
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Micallef, A, Camerlenghi, A, Georgiopoulou, A, Garcia-Castellanos, D, Gutscher, MA, Lo Iacono, C, Huvenne, VAI, Mountjoy, JJ, Paull, CK, Le Bas, T, Spatola, D, Facchin, L & Accettella, D 2019, 'Geomorphic evolution of the Malta Escarpment and implications for the Messinian evaporative drawdown in the eastern Mediterranean Sea', Geomorphology, vol. 327, pp. 264-283. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2018.11.012

Geomorphic evolution of the Malta Escarpment and implications for the Messinian evaporative drawdown in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. / Micallef, Aaron; Camerlenghi, Angelo; Georgiopoulou, Aggeliki; Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel; Gutscher, Marc André; Lo Iacono, Claudio; Huvenne, Veerle A.I.; Mountjoy, Joshu J.; Paull, Charles K.; Le Bas, Timothy; Spatola, Daniele; Facchin, Lorenzo; Accettella, Daniela.

In: Geomorphology, Vol. 327, 15.02.2019, p. 264-283.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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T1 - Geomorphic evolution of the Malta Escarpment and implications for the Messinian evaporative drawdown in the eastern Mediterranean Sea

AU - Micallef, Aaron

AU - Camerlenghi, Angelo

AU - Georgiopoulou, Aggeliki

AU - Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel

AU - Gutscher, Marc André

AU - Lo Iacono, Claudio

AU - Huvenne, Veerle A.I.

AU - Mountjoy, Joshu J.

AU - Paull, Charles K.

AU - Le Bas, Timothy

AU - Spatola, Daniele

AU - Facchin, Lorenzo

AU - Accettella, Daniela

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AB - Carbonate escarpments are submarine limestone and dolomite cliffs that have been documented in numerous sites around the world. Their geomorphic evolution is poorly understood due to difficulties in assessing escarpment outcrops and the limited resolution achieved by geophysical techniques across their steep topographies. The geomorphic evolution of carbonate escarpments in the Mediterranean Sea has been influenced by the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC). During the MSC (5.97–5.33 Ma), the Mediterranean Sea became a saline basin due to a temporary restriction of the Atlantic-Mediterranean seaway, resulting in the deposition of more than one million cubic kilometres of salt. The extent and relative chronology of the evaporative drawdown phases associated to the MSC remain poorly constrained. In this paper we combine geophysical and sedimentological data from the central Mediterranean Sea to reconstruct the geomorphic evolution of the Malta Escarpment and infer the extent and timing of evaporative drawdown in the eastern Mediterranean Sea during the MSC. We propose that, during a MSC base-level fall, fluvial erosion formed a dense network of canyons across the Malta Escarpment whilst coastal erosion developed extensive palaeoshorelines and shore platforms. The drivers of geomorphic evolution of the Malta Escarpment after the MSC include: (i) canyon erosion by submarine gravity flows, with the most recent activity taking place <2600 cal. years BP; (ii) deposition by bottom currents across the entire depth range of the Malta Escarpment; (iii) tectonic deformation in the southern Malta Escarpment in association with a wrench zone; (iv) widespread, small-scale sedimentary slope failures preconditioned by oversteepening and loss of support due to canyon erosion, and triggered by earthquakes. We carry out an isostatic restoration of the palaeoshorelines and shore platforms on the northern Malta Escarpment to infer an evaporative drawdown of 1800–2000 m in the eastern Mediterranean Sea during the MSC. We interpret the occurrence of pre-evaporite sedimentary lobes in the western Ionian Basin as suggesting that either evaporative drawdown and canyon formation predominantly occurred before salt deposition, or that only the latest salt deposition at the basin margin occurred after the formation of the sedimentary lobes.

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