Geochemistry and Mineralogy of Rare Earth Elements (REE) in Bauxitic Ores of the Catalan Coastal Range, NE Spain

Nils Reinhardt, Joaquín A. Proenza, Cristina Villanova-De-Benavent, Thomas Aiglsperger, Telm Bover-Arnal, Lisard Torró, Ramon Salas, Annika Dziggel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Karst bauxite deposits are currently investigated as a new resource for rare earth elements (REE) in order to avoid present and future supply shortfalls of these critical metals. The present work focuses on the geochemistry and mineralogy of the REE in karst bauxite deposits of the Catalan Coastal Range (CCR), NE-Spain. It is revealed that the studied bauxitic ores have a dominant breccia and local ooido-pisoidic and pelitomorphic texture. The bauxitic ores are mostly composed of kaolinite and hematite, as well as of lesser amounts of boehmite, diaspore, rutile and calcite. The mineralogy and major element composition indicate incomplete bauxitization of an argillaceous precursor material possibly derived from the erosion of the Mesozoic Ebro massif paleo-high. The studied bauxites are characterized by ∑REE (including Sc, Y) between 286 and 820 ppm (av. 483 ppm) and light REE to heavy REE (LREE/HREE) ratios up to 10.6. REE are mainly concentrated in phosphate minerals, identified as monazite-(Ce) and xenotime-(Y) of detrital origin and unidentified REE-phosphates of a possible authigenic origin. REE remobilization presumably took place under acidic conditions, whereas REE entrapment in the form of precipitation of authigenic rare earth minerals from percolating solutions was related to neutral to slightly alkaline conditions. During the bauxitization process no significant REE fractionation took place and the REE distribution pattern of the bauxitic ores was governed by the REE budget of the precursor material. Finally, adsorption as a main REE scavenging mechanism in the studied CCR bauxite deposits should not be considered, since the presented data did not reveal significant REE contents in Fe-and Mn-oxyhydroxides and clay minerals.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)562-587
Number of pages25
JournalMinerals
Volume8
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2018

Fingerprint

mineralogy
rare earth element
geochemistry
bauxite
ore
karst
phosphate
boehmite
xenotime
diaspore
monazite
remobilization
mineral
rutile
breccia
hematite
kaolinite
clay mineral
calcite
fractionation

Bibliographical note

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Keywords

  • karst bauxite
  • rare earth elements
  • monazite
  • xenotime
  • geochemistry
  • mineralogy
  • Catalonia
  • Spain

Cite this

Reinhardt, N., Proenza, J. A., Villanova-De-Benavent, C., Aiglsperger, T., Bover-Arnal, T., Torró, L., ... Dziggel, A. (2018). Geochemistry and Mineralogy of Rare Earth Elements (REE) in Bauxitic Ores of the Catalan Coastal Range, NE Spain. Minerals, 8(12), 562-587. https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120562
Reinhardt, Nils ; Proenza, Joaquín A. ; Villanova-De-Benavent, Cristina ; Aiglsperger, Thomas ; Bover-Arnal, Telm ; Torró, Lisard ; Salas, Ramon ; Dziggel, Annika. / Geochemistry and Mineralogy of Rare Earth Elements (REE) in Bauxitic Ores of the Catalan Coastal Range, NE Spain. In: Minerals. 2018 ; Vol. 8, No. 12. pp. 562-587.
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Reinhardt, N, Proenza, JA, Villanova-De-Benavent, C, Aiglsperger, T, Bover-Arnal, T, Torró, L, Salas, R & Dziggel, A 2018, 'Geochemistry and Mineralogy of Rare Earth Elements (REE) in Bauxitic Ores of the Catalan Coastal Range, NE Spain', Minerals, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 562-587. https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120562

Geochemistry and Mineralogy of Rare Earth Elements (REE) in Bauxitic Ores of the Catalan Coastal Range, NE Spain. / Reinhardt, Nils; Proenza, Joaquín A.; Villanova-De-Benavent, Cristina; Aiglsperger, Thomas; Bover-Arnal, Telm; Torró, Lisard; Salas, Ramon; Dziggel, Annika.

In: Minerals, Vol. 8, No. 12, 01.12.2018, p. 562-587.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Geochemistry and Mineralogy of Rare Earth Elements (REE) in Bauxitic Ores of the Catalan Coastal Range, NE Spain

AU - Reinhardt, Nils

AU - Proenza, Joaquín A.

AU - Villanova-De-Benavent, Cristina

AU - Aiglsperger, Thomas

AU - Bover-Arnal, Telm

AU - Torró, Lisard

AU - Salas, Ramon

AU - Dziggel, Annika

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PY - 2018/12/1

Y1 - 2018/12/1

N2 - Karst bauxite deposits are currently investigated as a new resource for rare earth elements (REE) in order to avoid present and future supply shortfalls of these critical metals. The present work focuses on the geochemistry and mineralogy of the REE in karst bauxite deposits of the Catalan Coastal Range (CCR), NE-Spain. It is revealed that the studied bauxitic ores have a dominant breccia and local ooido-pisoidic and pelitomorphic texture. The bauxitic ores are mostly composed of kaolinite and hematite, as well as of lesser amounts of boehmite, diaspore, rutile and calcite. The mineralogy and major element composition indicate incomplete bauxitization of an argillaceous precursor material possibly derived from the erosion of the Mesozoic Ebro massif paleo-high. The studied bauxites are characterized by ∑REE (including Sc, Y) between 286 and 820 ppm (av. 483 ppm) and light REE to heavy REE (LREE/HREE) ratios up to 10.6. REE are mainly concentrated in phosphate minerals, identified as monazite-(Ce) and xenotime-(Y) of detrital origin and unidentified REE-phosphates of a possible authigenic origin. REE remobilization presumably took place under acidic conditions, whereas REE entrapment in the form of precipitation of authigenic rare earth minerals from percolating solutions was related to neutral to slightly alkaline conditions. During the bauxitization process no significant REE fractionation took place and the REE distribution pattern of the bauxitic ores was governed by the REE budget of the precursor material. Finally, adsorption as a main REE scavenging mechanism in the studied CCR bauxite deposits should not be considered, since the presented data did not reveal significant REE contents in Fe-and Mn-oxyhydroxides and clay minerals.

AB - Karst bauxite deposits are currently investigated as a new resource for rare earth elements (REE) in order to avoid present and future supply shortfalls of these critical metals. The present work focuses on the geochemistry and mineralogy of the REE in karst bauxite deposits of the Catalan Coastal Range (CCR), NE-Spain. It is revealed that the studied bauxitic ores have a dominant breccia and local ooido-pisoidic and pelitomorphic texture. The bauxitic ores are mostly composed of kaolinite and hematite, as well as of lesser amounts of boehmite, diaspore, rutile and calcite. The mineralogy and major element composition indicate incomplete bauxitization of an argillaceous precursor material possibly derived from the erosion of the Mesozoic Ebro massif paleo-high. The studied bauxites are characterized by ∑REE (including Sc, Y) between 286 and 820 ppm (av. 483 ppm) and light REE to heavy REE (LREE/HREE) ratios up to 10.6. REE are mainly concentrated in phosphate minerals, identified as monazite-(Ce) and xenotime-(Y) of detrital origin and unidentified REE-phosphates of a possible authigenic origin. REE remobilization presumably took place under acidic conditions, whereas REE entrapment in the form of precipitation of authigenic rare earth minerals from percolating solutions was related to neutral to slightly alkaline conditions. During the bauxitization process no significant REE fractionation took place and the REE distribution pattern of the bauxitic ores was governed by the REE budget of the precursor material. Finally, adsorption as a main REE scavenging mechanism in the studied CCR bauxite deposits should not be considered, since the presented data did not reveal significant REE contents in Fe-and Mn-oxyhydroxides and clay minerals.

KW - karst bauxite

KW - rare earth elements

KW - monazite

KW - xenotime

KW - geochemistry

KW - mineralogy

KW - Catalonia

KW - Spain

U2 - 10.3390/min8120562

DO - 10.3390/min8120562

M3 - Article

VL - 8

SP - 562

EP - 587

JO - Minerals

JF - Minerals

SN - 2075-163X

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Reinhardt N, Proenza JA, Villanova-De-Benavent C, Aiglsperger T, Bover-Arnal T, Torró L et al. Geochemistry and Mineralogy of Rare Earth Elements (REE) in Bauxitic Ores of the Catalan Coastal Range, NE Spain. Minerals. 2018 Dec 1;8(12):562-587. https://doi.org/10.3390/min8120562