Fructose chemistry

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Fructose is a six-carbon ketose monosaccharide. In aqueous solution and in the crystalline form, the majority of the molecules form ring structures. Of these, the six-membered pyranose form is the most abundant; however, about one-quarter of the molecules are in the five-membered, furanose form. While many of its reactions are similar to those of glucose, the presence of a ketone group in the chain, and the relative ease with which the molecule forms a five-membered furanose ring affects its chemistry and biochemistry. Specific pathways are required to enable organisms to exploit fructose in energy metabolism; these require the enzyme fructokinase and involve the conversion of fructose to glycolytic intermediates. Similarly, specific pathways for the biosynthesis of fructose and fructose-containing polymers, such as inulin, are required. Non-enzymatic glycation (fructation) by fructose has not been as extensively studied as the corresponding reactions with glucose. Nevertheless, especially in diabetic patients and fructose-rich foodstuffs, this reaction is likely to be important.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationDietary Sugars
Subtitle of host publication Chemistry, Analysis, Function and Effects
PublisherRoyal Society of Chemistry
ISBN (Electronic) 9781849734929
ISBN (Print)9781849733700
Publication statusPublished - 2012


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