Foot and Ankle Characteristics in Gout: A Systematic Review

Kerry Bendall, Brunilda Agalliu, Simon Otter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: Gout has a predilection for the foot and ankle, but the impact of gout has limited presence in the literature. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesise existing literature which has investigated the characteristics of foot and ankle involvement in gout; identifying consensus and highlighting areas for further study.

Methods: Studies were included if they were published in English and involved participants over 18 years of age with gout, and presented original findings relating to outcome measures associated with the foot and ankle. Methodological quality was assessed using a modified version of the Quality Index Tool.

Results. Of 707 studies identified, 16 met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. The mean (range) quality score was 68.1% (38.9%-88.9%). Compared to controls, participants with gout reported higher levels of activity limitation, foot-related pain and disability and walked more slowly. Plain radiography, dual-energy Computer Tomography and diagnostic ultrasound consistently demonstrated pathological features of gout in the first metatarsophalangeal joint and Achilles tendon. However, studies offered limited quality, particularly around recruitment strategies, validity and potential impact of confounding factors, making definitive statements difficult.

Conclusions: This systematic review highlights the negative impact of gout on the structure and function of the foot and ankle causing significant impairment and disability. To effectively guide management, improvements in methodological quality are recommended.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-21
Number of pages21
JournalAmerican Journal of Orthopedic Research and Reviews
Publication statusPublished - 18 Nov 2021


  • Gout
  • Foot
  • Ankle


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