Fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene influences skeletal muscle phenotypes in non-resistance trained males and elite rugby playing position

Shane M. Heffernan, G.K. Stebbings, Liam P. Kilduff, R.M. Erskine, Stephen H. Day, C. I. Morse, J.S. McPhee, C.J. Cook, B. Vance, W.J. Ribbans, S.M. Raleigh, C. Roberts, M.A. Bennett, Guan Wang, Malcolm Collins, Yannis Pitsiladis, A.G. Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

FTO gene variants have been associated with obesity phenotypes in sedentary and obese populations, but rarely with skeletal muscle and elite athlete phenotypes. Methods: In 1089 participants, comprising 530 elite rugby athletes and 559 non-athletes, DNA was collected and genotyped for the FTO rs9939609 variant using real-time PCR. In a subgroup of non-resistance trained individuals (NT; n = 120), we also assessed structural and functional skeletal muscle phenotypes using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, ultrasound and isokinetic dynamometry. In a subgroup of rugby athletes (n = 77), we assessed muscle power during a countermovement jump. Results: In NT, TT genotype and T allele carriers had greater total body (4.8% and 4.1%) and total appendicular lean mass (LM; 3.0% and 2.1%) compared to AA genotype, with greater arm LM (0.8%) in T allele carriers and leg LM (2.1%) for TT, compared to AA genotype. Furthermore, the T allele was more common (94%) in selected elite rugby union athletes (back three and centre players) who are most reliant on LM rather than total body mass for success, compared to other rugby athletes (82%; P = 0.01, OR = 3.34) and controls (84%; P = 0.03, OR = 2.88). Accordingly, these athletes had greater peak power relative to body mass than other rugby athletes (14%; P = 2 x 10-6). Conclusion: Collectively, these results suggest that the T allele is associated with increased LM and elite athletic success. This has implications for athletic populations, as well as conditions characterised by low LM such as sarcopenia and cachexia.
Original languageEnglish
JournalBMC Genetics
Volume18
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 19 Jan 2017

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Football
Athletes
Skeletal Muscle
Obesity
Fats
Phenotype
Genes
Alleles
Genotype
Sports
Sarcopenia
Cachexia
Population
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Leg
Arm
X-Rays
Muscles
DNA

Bibliographical note

© The Author(s). 2017 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Keywords

  • RugbyGene project
  • IRX3
  • Lean mass

Cite this

Heffernan, S. M., Stebbings, G. K., Kilduff, L. P., Erskine, R. M., Day, S. H., Morse, C. I., ... Williams, A. G. (2017). Fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene influences skeletal muscle phenotypes in non-resistance trained males and elite rugby playing position. BMC Genetics, 18(4). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12863-017-0470-1
Heffernan, Shane M. ; Stebbings, G.K. ; Kilduff, Liam P. ; Erskine, R.M. ; Day, Stephen H. ; Morse, C. I. ; McPhee, J.S. ; Cook, C.J. ; Vance, B. ; Ribbans, W.J. ; Raleigh, S.M. ; Roberts, C. ; Bennett, M.A. ; Wang, Guan ; Collins, Malcolm ; Pitsiladis, Yannis ; Williams, A.G. / Fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene influences skeletal muscle phenotypes in non-resistance trained males and elite rugby playing position. In: BMC Genetics. 2017 ; Vol. 18, No. 4.
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Heffernan, SM, Stebbings, GK, Kilduff, LP, Erskine, RM, Day, SH, Morse, CI, McPhee, JS, Cook, CJ, Vance, B, Ribbans, WJ, Raleigh, SM, Roberts, C, Bennett, MA, Wang, G, Collins, M, Pitsiladis, Y & Williams, AG 2017, 'Fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene influences skeletal muscle phenotypes in non-resistance trained males and elite rugby playing position', BMC Genetics, vol. 18, no. 4. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12863-017-0470-1

Fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene influences skeletal muscle phenotypes in non-resistance trained males and elite rugby playing position. / Heffernan, Shane M.; Stebbings, G.K.; Kilduff, Liam P.; Erskine, R.M.; Day, Stephen H.; Morse, C. I.; McPhee, J.S.; Cook, C.J.; Vance, B.; Ribbans, W.J.; Raleigh, S.M.; Roberts, C.; Bennett, M.A.; Wang, Guan; Collins, Malcolm; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Williams, A.G.

In: BMC Genetics, Vol. 18, No. 4, 19.01.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene influences skeletal muscle phenotypes in non-resistance trained males and elite rugby playing position

AU - Heffernan, Shane M.

AU - Stebbings, G.K.

AU - Kilduff, Liam P.

AU - Erskine, R.M.

AU - Day, Stephen H.

AU - Morse, C. I.

AU - McPhee, J.S.

AU - Cook, C.J.

AU - Vance, B.

AU - Ribbans, W.J.

AU - Raleigh, S.M.

AU - Roberts, C.

AU - Bennett, M.A.

AU - Wang, Guan

AU - Collins, Malcolm

AU - Pitsiladis, Yannis

AU - Williams, A.G.

N1 - © The Author(s). 2017 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

PY - 2017/1/19

Y1 - 2017/1/19

N2 - FTO gene variants have been associated with obesity phenotypes in sedentary and obese populations, but rarely with skeletal muscle and elite athlete phenotypes. Methods: In 1089 participants, comprising 530 elite rugby athletes and 559 non-athletes, DNA was collected and genotyped for the FTO rs9939609 variant using real-time PCR. In a subgroup of non-resistance trained individuals (NT; n = 120), we also assessed structural and functional skeletal muscle phenotypes using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, ultrasound and isokinetic dynamometry. In a subgroup of rugby athletes (n = 77), we assessed muscle power during a countermovement jump. Results: In NT, TT genotype and T allele carriers had greater total body (4.8% and 4.1%) and total appendicular lean mass (LM; 3.0% and 2.1%) compared to AA genotype, with greater arm LM (0.8%) in T allele carriers and leg LM (2.1%) for TT, compared to AA genotype. Furthermore, the T allele was more common (94%) in selected elite rugby union athletes (back three and centre players) who are most reliant on LM rather than total body mass for success, compared to other rugby athletes (82%; P = 0.01, OR = 3.34) and controls (84%; P = 0.03, OR = 2.88). Accordingly, these athletes had greater peak power relative to body mass than other rugby athletes (14%; P = 2 x 10-6). Conclusion: Collectively, these results suggest that the T allele is associated with increased LM and elite athletic success. This has implications for athletic populations, as well as conditions characterised by low LM such as sarcopenia and cachexia.

AB - FTO gene variants have been associated with obesity phenotypes in sedentary and obese populations, but rarely with skeletal muscle and elite athlete phenotypes. Methods: In 1089 participants, comprising 530 elite rugby athletes and 559 non-athletes, DNA was collected and genotyped for the FTO rs9939609 variant using real-time PCR. In a subgroup of non-resistance trained individuals (NT; n = 120), we also assessed structural and functional skeletal muscle phenotypes using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, ultrasound and isokinetic dynamometry. In a subgroup of rugby athletes (n = 77), we assessed muscle power during a countermovement jump. Results: In NT, TT genotype and T allele carriers had greater total body (4.8% and 4.1%) and total appendicular lean mass (LM; 3.0% and 2.1%) compared to AA genotype, with greater arm LM (0.8%) in T allele carriers and leg LM (2.1%) for TT, compared to AA genotype. Furthermore, the T allele was more common (94%) in selected elite rugby union athletes (back three and centre players) who are most reliant on LM rather than total body mass for success, compared to other rugby athletes (82%; P = 0.01, OR = 3.34) and controls (84%; P = 0.03, OR = 2.88). Accordingly, these athletes had greater peak power relative to body mass than other rugby athletes (14%; P = 2 x 10-6). Conclusion: Collectively, these results suggest that the T allele is associated with increased LM and elite athletic success. This has implications for athletic populations, as well as conditions characterised by low LM such as sarcopenia and cachexia.

KW - RugbyGene project

KW - IRX3

KW - Lean mass

U2 - 10.1186/s12863-017-0470-1

DO - 10.1186/s12863-017-0470-1

M3 - Article

VL - 18

JO - BMC Genetics

JF - BMC Genetics

SN - 1471-2156

IS - 4

ER -