Posterior capsule opacification (PCO) is the most common complication arising from the corrective surgery used to treat cataract patients. PCO arises when lens epithelial cells (LEC) residing in the capsular bag post-surgery undergo hyper-proliferation and transdifferentiation into myofibroblasts, migrating from the posterior capsule over the visual axis of the newly implanted intraocular lens (IOL). The developmental pathways underlying PCO are yet to be fully understood and the current literature is contradictory regarding the impact of the recognised risk factors of PCO. The aim of this review is firstly to collate the known biochemical pathways that lead to PCO development, providing an up-to-date chronological overview from surgery to established PCO formation. Secondly, the risk factors of PCO are evaluated, focussing on the impact of IOLs’ properties. Finally, the latest experimental model designs used in PCO research are discussed to demonstrate the ongoing development of clinical PCO models, the efficacy of newly developed IOL technology, and potential therapeutic interventions. This review will contribute to current PCO literature by presenting an updated overview of the known developmental pathways of PCO, an evaluation of the impact of the risk factors underlying its development, and the latest experimental models used to investigate PCO. Furthermore, the review should provide developmental routes for research into the investigation of potential therapeutic interventions and improvements in IOL design in the aid of preventing PCO for new and existing patients.
Bibliographical note© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
- Clinical studies
- Experimental models
- Intraocular lenses
- Lens epithelial cells
- Posterior capsule opacification
- Wound healing