Experimental investigation of the lateral capacity of cruciform piles in sand

Maria Diakoumi, Kevin Stone, Javier Dos Ramos

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceeding with ISSN or ISBNConference contribution with ISSN or ISBNpeer-review


Despite the wide use of various steel pile sections (e.g. circular, square, H sections) and the use of cruciform structural columns, the use of steel piles of cruciform cross section has not been explored. Cruciform piles could present some advantages compared to conventional circular piles such as the reduction in the amount of energy and vibration required during the installation process. This study investigates the performance of cruciform piles embedded in sand under lateral loading. A range of slenderness ratios and two different loading directions are tested. The tests were conducted at 1g and 10g in medium to dense uniformly graded dry sand. Monotonic lateral loading was applied, and the results are presented through load versus displacement plots, from which the lateral capacity is derived. The results are compared with the respective values derived from tests on circular open ended piles of the same diameter under lateral load and the differences are evaluated and discussed. The results show an increase in the lateral capacity of cruciform piles compared to circular open-ended piles for various slenderness ratios.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPiling 2020
Subtitle of host publicationProceedings of the Piling 2020 Conference
EditorsK.G. Higgins, Y. Ainsworth, D.G. Toll, A.S. Osman
PublisherICE Publishing
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9780727765055
ISBN (Print)9780727765048
Publication statusPublished - 10 Mar 2021
EventPiling 2020 - virtual, United Kingdom
Duration: 23 Mar 202126 Mar 2021


ConferencePiling 2020
Country/TerritoryUnited Kingdom
Internet address


  • piles & piling
  • centrifuge modelling
  • sands
  • model tests
  • lateral load


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