The authors examined the role of action effects (i.e., ball trajectory) during the performance of a soccer kick. Participants were 20 expert players who kicked a ball over a height barrier toward a ground-level target. The authors occluded participants' vision of the ball trajectory after foot-to-ball contact. Participants in a 1st group received erroneous feedback from a video that showed a ball-trajectory apex approximately 75 cm lower than that of their actual kick, although the ball's landing position was unaltered. Participants in a 2nd group received correct video feedback of both the ball trajectory and the landing position. The erroneous-feedback group showed a significant bias toward higher ball trajectories than did the correct-feedback group. The authors conclude that performers at high levels of skill use the visual consequences of the action to plan and execute an action.
- soccer kick
Ford, P., Hodges, N. J., & Williams, A. M. (2007). Examining action effects in the execution of a skilled soccer kick by using erroneous feedback. Journal of Motor Behavior, 39(6), 481-490. https://doi.org/10.3200/JMBR.39.6.481-490