Enclosing Autonomy: The politics of tolerance and criminalisation of the Amsterdam squatting movement

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In the Netherlands squatting was tolerated and regulated for decades. In October 2010 a new law turned the occupation of vacant properties into a criminal action punishable with up to two years imprisonment. This paper argues that while squatted spaces produce autonomous forms of urban commoning, both tolerance and criminalisation of squatting engendered multiple modes of enclosure and capture of the autonomous socio-spatial relations constituted through these spaces. By analysing techniques of disciplinary inte-gration, commodification and criminalisation, the paper suggests that the object of enclosure is not simply the common as such, but its radical capacity for autonomy from state control and capital capture.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)170-188
Number of pages19
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 22 May 2019


Bibliographical note

This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in City on 22/05/2019, available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/13604813.2019.1615760


  • Criminalisation
  • Squatting
  • Autonomy
  • Tolerance
  • Housing
  • Social Movements
  • Protest
  • squatting
  • urban common
  • criminalisation
  • autonomy
  • new enclosures
  • tolerance

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