Antiretroviral therapy (ART), a life-saving treatment strategy in HIV/AIDS, has been implicated in increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Direct damaging effects on beta-cell function and survival by either non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) or nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) may predispose individuals to developing T2DM or if already type 2 diabetic, to insulin dependency. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the NNRTIs efavirenz, rilpivirine and doravirine, and the NRTIs tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine, on beta-cell function and survival while suggesting potential cellular and molecular mechanism(s). Our results show contrasting effects within the NNRTI class as doravirine did not cause damaging effects in the rat insulinoma INS-1E cells while efavirenz and rilpivirine reduced insulin release and cell viability, and induced apoptosis in INS-1E cells. Additionally, efavirenz and rilpivirine increased ROS generation, disrupted Δψm and upregulated the mRNA and protein expression of CHOP and GRP78, key markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress. In silico docking studies predict a possible inhibition of the mitochondrial ATP synthase by rilpivirine. On the contrary, both the NRTIs tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine did not affect GSIS, cell viability and apoptosis/necrosis levels in INS-1E cells. The deleterious effects observed in beta-cells exposed to efavirenz or rilpivirine may be, at least partially, mediated by oxidative stress and mitochondrial toxicity. These findings provide potential mechanism(s) by which efavirenz and rilpivirine may contribute to the pathogenesis of T2DM and the progression of T2DM to insulin dependency in HIV-infected type 2 diabetics.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
S.C.M and M.T.M gratefully acknowledge the general support provided by the Algerian Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research .
© 2022 Elsevier Inc.
- Pancreatic beta-cell
- Mitochondrial function
- Oxidative stress