Development of a direct-injection heavy-duty hydrogen engine

R.J. Osborne, J. Hughes, A. Loiudice, R. Penning, L. Valenta, A.C. Calero, D.C. Bennet, R.E. Morgan, Vikas Sharma

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceeding with ISSN or ISBNChapterpeer-review


Hydrogen-fuelled internal combustion engines (ICEs) offer a zero-carbon fuel option for many applications. As part of the global effort to study hydrogen ICEs Ricardo has developed single-cylinder and multi-cylinder heavy-duty engines.

The engines are representative of a 13 litre Euro VI heavy-duty production application converted to run on hydrogen fuel with limited changes. The engine is fitted with direct hydrogen injectors which enable flexible injection strategies and reduce hydrogen in the intake system. Steady-state testing was carried out over an array of speed and load points covering a typical heavy-duty drive-cycle area.

Engine test results are presented and analysed in this paper. The combustion system can run to values exceeding lambda 5 and 40% exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can be tolerated. The impact of lambda, EGR, injection and ignition timing variations are presented and demonstrate how the system responds to the corresponding changes in specific heat capacity, mixture preparation, and combustion phasing.

Abnormal combustion events present a sizeable challenge for hydrogen ICEs due to very large knocking pressures and pre-ignition risks. These events are analysed and mitigation measures presented.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPowertrain Systems for a Sustainable Future
Subtitle of host publicationProceedings of the International Conference on Powertrain Systems for a Sustainable Future 2023, London, UK, 29- 30 November 2023
PublisherCRC Press
Number of pages19
ISBN (Electronic)9781032687568
Publication statusPublished - 4 Dec 2023


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