Developing effective decision support for the application of “Gentle” Remediation Options: The GREENLAND Project

Andrew Cundy, Richard Bardos, M. Puschenreiter, N. Witters, M. Mench, V. Bert, W. Friesl-Hanl, I. Müller, Nele Weyens, J. Vangronsveld

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Gentle remediation options (GRO) are risk management strategies/technologies that result in a net gain (or at least no gross reduction) in soil function as well as risk management. They encompass a number of technologies, including the use of plant (phyto-), fungi (myco-), and/or bacteria-based methods, with or without chemical soil additives or amendments, for reducing contaminant transfer to local receptors by in situ stabilization, or extraction, transformation, or degradation of contaminants. Despite offering strong benefits in terms of risk management, deployment costs, and sustainability for a range of site problems, the application of GRO as practical on-site remedial solutions is still in its relative infancy, particularly for metal(loid)-contaminated sites. A key barrier to wider adoption of GRO relates to general uncertainties and lack of stakeholder confidence in (and indeed knowledge of) the feasibility or reliability of GRO as practical risk management solutions. The GREENLAND project has therefore developed a simple and transparent decision support framework for promoting the appropriate use of gentle remediation options and encouraging participation of stakeholders, supplemented by a set of specific design aids for use when GRO appear to be a viable option. The framework is presented as a three phased model or Decision Support Tool (DST), in the form of a Microsoft Excel-based workbook, designed to inform decisionmaking and options appraisal during the selection of remedial approaches for contaminated sites. The DST acts as a simple decision support and stakeholder engagement tool for the application of GRO, providing a context for GRO application (particularly where soft end-use of remediated land is envisaged), quick reference tables (including an economic cost calculator), and supporting information and technical guidance drawing on practical examples of effective GRO application at trace metal(loid) contaminated sites across Europe. This article introduces the decision support framework.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)101-114
Number of pages14
JournalRemediation Journal
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 10 Jun 2015


Bibliographical note

This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Cundy, A., Bardos, P., Puschenreiter, M., Witters, N., Mench, M., Bert, V., Friesl-Hanl, W., Müller, I., Weyens, N. and Vangronsveld, J. (2015), Developing Effective Decision Support for the Application of “Gentle” Remediation Options: The GREENLAND Project. Remediation, 25: 101–114, which has been published in final form at 10.1002/rem.21435. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.

Cite this

Cundy, A., Bardos, R., Puschenreiter, M., Witters, N., Mench, M., Bert, V., ... Vangronsveld, J. (2015). Developing effective decision support for the application of “Gentle” Remediation Options: The GREENLAND Project. Remediation Journal, 25(3), 101-114.