Design challenges for mobile and wearable systems to support learning on-the-move at outdoor cultural heritage sites

Alaa Alkhafaji , Sanaz Fallahkhair, Mihaela Cocea

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceeding with ISSN or ISBNConference contribution with ISSN or ISBNpeer-review


    This paper presents a novel set of design challenges for the development of mobile and wearable applications to be used at cultural heritage sites. These challenges were drawn out based on a user study that was carried out to evaluate a mobile application prototype, SmartC. SmartC was designed for supporting people in taking learning opportunities at sites whenever they need informally while they are on the move. Augmented reality and wearable computing, i.e. smart eye glasses, were used in this research with the aim of bringing the past to life, as well as enhancing visitors’ engagement. SmartC was evaluated by 26 participants, potential end-users, in the field. The evaluation study mainly focused on the interaction and usability aspects, which contribute to the field of HCI. The paper outlines several issues and challenges that were identified based on the evaluation study, summarised as: (1) interaction design related; (2) wearable computing related; (3) surroundings and environment related; (4) learner related; (5) context of use; and (6) technical issues. This paper also identifies aspects that relate to methods to be used and applied to such cases for evaluation studies.

    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationHuman-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2019 - 17th IFIP TC 13 International Conference, Proceedings
    Subtitle of host publication17th IFIP TC.13 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction
    EditorsDavid Lamas, Fernando Loizides, Lennart Nacke, Helen Petrie, Marco Winckler, Panayiotis Zaphiris
    Place of PublicationPaphos, Cyprus
    Number of pages23
    ISBN (Electronic)9783030293871
    ISBN (Print)9783030293864
    Publication statusPublished - 25 Aug 2019
    EventINTERACT 2019: 17th IFIP TC.13 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction - Paphos, Cyprus, Paphos, Cyprus
    Duration: 2 Sept 20196 Sept 2019

    Publication series

    NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
    Volume11748 LNCS
    ISSN (Print)0302-9743
    ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


    ConferenceINTERACT 2019
    Abbreviated titleINTERACT
    Internet address

    Bibliographical note

    This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Lecture Notes in Computer Science. The final authenticated version is available online at:


    • Augmented reality
    • Mobile location-based services
    • Outdoors cultural heritage
    • Ubiquitous learning
    • Wearable computing


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