Defining the determinants of endurance running performance in the heat

Carl James, Mark Hayes, Ashley Willmott, Oliver Gibson, Andreas Flouris, Zachary Schleder, Neil Maxwell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

In cool conditions, physiological markers accurately predict endurance performance, but it is unclear whether thermal strain and perceived thermal strain modify the strength of these relationships. This study examined the relationships between traditional determinants of endurance performance and time to complete a 5 km time trial in the heat. Seventeen club runners completed graded exercise tests (GXT) in hot (GXTHOT; 32°C, 60% RH, 27.2°C WBGT) and cool conditions (GXTCOOL; 13°C, 50% RH, 9.3°C WBGT) to determine maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), running economy (RE), velocity at V̇O2max (vV̇O2max), and running speeds corresponding to the lactate threshold (LT, 2 mmol.l-1) and lactate turnpoint (LTP, 4 mmol.l-1). Simultaneous multiple linear regression was used to predict 5 km time, using these determinants, indicating neither GXTHOT (R2=0.72) or GXTCOOL (R2=0.86) predicted performance in the heat as strongly has previously been reported in cool conditions. vV̇O2max was the strongest individual predictor of performance, both when assessed in GXTHOT (r=-0.83) and GXTCOOL (r=-0.90). The GXTs revealed the following correlations for individual predictors in GXTHOT; V̇O2max r=-0.7, RE r=0.36, LT r=-0.77, LTP r=-0.78 and in GXTCOOL; V̇O2max r=-0.67, RE r=0.62, LT r=-0.79, LTP r=-0.8. These data indicate: (i) GXTHOT does not predict 5 km running performance in the heat as strongly as a GXTCOOL, (ii) as in cool conditions, vV̇O2max may best predict running performance in the heat.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)314-329
Number of pages16
JournalTemperature
Volume4
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 25 May 2017

Fingerprint

heat
lactates
exercise test
oxygen

Bibliographical note

This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Temperature on 25/05/2017, available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/23328940.2017.1333189

Keywords

  • Endurance
  • running
  • lactate threshold
  • V̇O2max
  • heat stress
  • thermoregulation
  • performance

Cite this

James, Carl ; Hayes, Mark ; Willmott, Ashley ; Gibson, Oliver ; Flouris, Andreas ; Schleder, Zachary ; Maxwell, Neil. / Defining the determinants of endurance running performance in the heat. In: Temperature. 2017 ; Vol. 4, No. 3. pp. 314-329.
@article{e2172931a50344f6b7679b7c3214bfbe,
title = "Defining the determinants of endurance running performance in the heat",
abstract = "In cool conditions, physiological markers accurately predict endurance performance, but it is unclear whether thermal strain and perceived thermal strain modify the strength of these relationships. This study examined the relationships between traditional determinants of endurance performance and time to complete a 5 km time trial in the heat. Seventeen club runners completed graded exercise tests (GXT) in hot (GXTHOT; 32°C, 60{\%} RH, 27.2°C WBGT) and cool conditions (GXTCOOL; 13°C, 50{\%} RH, 9.3°C WBGT) to determine maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), running economy (RE), velocity at V̇O2max (vV̇O2max), and running speeds corresponding to the lactate threshold (LT, 2 mmol.l-1) and lactate turnpoint (LTP, 4 mmol.l-1). Simultaneous multiple linear regression was used to predict 5 km time, using these determinants, indicating neither GXTHOT (R2=0.72) or GXTCOOL (R2=0.86) predicted performance in the heat as strongly has previously been reported in cool conditions. vV̇O2max was the strongest individual predictor of performance, both when assessed in GXTHOT (r=-0.83) and GXTCOOL (r=-0.90). The GXTs revealed the following correlations for individual predictors in GXTHOT; V̇O2max r=-0.7, RE r=0.36, LT r=-0.77, LTP r=-0.78 and in GXTCOOL; V̇O2max r=-0.67, RE r=0.62, LT r=-0.79, LTP r=-0.8. These data indicate: (i) GXTHOT does not predict 5 km running performance in the heat as strongly as a GXTCOOL, (ii) as in cool conditions, vV̇O2max may best predict running performance in the heat.",
keywords = "Endurance, running, lactate threshold, V̇O2max, heat stress, thermoregulation, performance",
author = "Carl James and Mark Hayes and Ashley Willmott and Oliver Gibson and Andreas Flouris and Zachary Schleder and Neil Maxwell",
note = "This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Temperature on 25/05/2017, available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/23328940.2017.1333189",
year = "2017",
month = "5",
day = "25",
doi = "10.1080/23328940.2017.1333189",
language = "English",
volume = "4",
pages = "314--329",
journal = "Temperature",
issn = "2332-8959",
number = "3",

}

Defining the determinants of endurance running performance in the heat. / James, Carl; Hayes, Mark; Willmott, Ashley; Gibson, Oliver; Flouris, Andreas; Schleder, Zachary; Maxwell, Neil.

In: Temperature, Vol. 4, No. 3, 25.05.2017, p. 314-329.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Defining the determinants of endurance running performance in the heat

AU - James, Carl

AU - Hayes, Mark

AU - Willmott, Ashley

AU - Gibson, Oliver

AU - Flouris, Andreas

AU - Schleder, Zachary

AU - Maxwell, Neil

N1 - This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Temperature on 25/05/2017, available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/23328940.2017.1333189

PY - 2017/5/25

Y1 - 2017/5/25

N2 - In cool conditions, physiological markers accurately predict endurance performance, but it is unclear whether thermal strain and perceived thermal strain modify the strength of these relationships. This study examined the relationships between traditional determinants of endurance performance and time to complete a 5 km time trial in the heat. Seventeen club runners completed graded exercise tests (GXT) in hot (GXTHOT; 32°C, 60% RH, 27.2°C WBGT) and cool conditions (GXTCOOL; 13°C, 50% RH, 9.3°C WBGT) to determine maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), running economy (RE), velocity at V̇O2max (vV̇O2max), and running speeds corresponding to the lactate threshold (LT, 2 mmol.l-1) and lactate turnpoint (LTP, 4 mmol.l-1). Simultaneous multiple linear regression was used to predict 5 km time, using these determinants, indicating neither GXTHOT (R2=0.72) or GXTCOOL (R2=0.86) predicted performance in the heat as strongly has previously been reported in cool conditions. vV̇O2max was the strongest individual predictor of performance, both when assessed in GXTHOT (r=-0.83) and GXTCOOL (r=-0.90). The GXTs revealed the following correlations for individual predictors in GXTHOT; V̇O2max r=-0.7, RE r=0.36, LT r=-0.77, LTP r=-0.78 and in GXTCOOL; V̇O2max r=-0.67, RE r=0.62, LT r=-0.79, LTP r=-0.8. These data indicate: (i) GXTHOT does not predict 5 km running performance in the heat as strongly as a GXTCOOL, (ii) as in cool conditions, vV̇O2max may best predict running performance in the heat.

AB - In cool conditions, physiological markers accurately predict endurance performance, but it is unclear whether thermal strain and perceived thermal strain modify the strength of these relationships. This study examined the relationships between traditional determinants of endurance performance and time to complete a 5 km time trial in the heat. Seventeen club runners completed graded exercise tests (GXT) in hot (GXTHOT; 32°C, 60% RH, 27.2°C WBGT) and cool conditions (GXTCOOL; 13°C, 50% RH, 9.3°C WBGT) to determine maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), running economy (RE), velocity at V̇O2max (vV̇O2max), and running speeds corresponding to the lactate threshold (LT, 2 mmol.l-1) and lactate turnpoint (LTP, 4 mmol.l-1). Simultaneous multiple linear regression was used to predict 5 km time, using these determinants, indicating neither GXTHOT (R2=0.72) or GXTCOOL (R2=0.86) predicted performance in the heat as strongly has previously been reported in cool conditions. vV̇O2max was the strongest individual predictor of performance, both when assessed in GXTHOT (r=-0.83) and GXTCOOL (r=-0.90). The GXTs revealed the following correlations for individual predictors in GXTHOT; V̇O2max r=-0.7, RE r=0.36, LT r=-0.77, LTP r=-0.78 and in GXTCOOL; V̇O2max r=-0.67, RE r=0.62, LT r=-0.79, LTP r=-0.8. These data indicate: (i) GXTHOT does not predict 5 km running performance in the heat as strongly as a GXTCOOL, (ii) as in cool conditions, vV̇O2max may best predict running performance in the heat.

KW - Endurance

KW - running

KW - lactate threshold

KW - V̇O2max

KW - heat stress

KW - thermoregulation

KW - performance

U2 - 10.1080/23328940.2017.1333189

DO - 10.1080/23328940.2017.1333189

M3 - Article

VL - 4

SP - 314

EP - 329

JO - Temperature

JF - Temperature

SN - 2332-8959

IS - 3

ER -

James C, Hayes M, Willmott A, Gibson O, Flouris A, Schleder Z et al. Defining the determinants of endurance running performance in the heat. Temperature. 2017 May 25;4(3):314-329. https://doi.org/10.1080/23328940.2017.1333189