Vehicular ad hoc networks play a pivotal role in the enrichment of transportation systems by making them intelligent and capable of avoiding road accidents. For transmission of warning messages, direction-based Greedy protocols select the next hop based on the current location of relay nodes toward the destination node, which is an efficient approach for uni-directional traffic. However, such protocols experience performance degradation by neglecting the movement directions of nodes in bi-directional traffic where topological changes occur dynamically. This paper pioneers the use of movement direction and relative positions of source and destination nodes to cater to the dynamic nature of bi-directional highway environments for efficient and robust routing of warning messages. A novel routing protocol, namely, Direction Aware Best Forwarder Selection (DABFS), is presented in this paper. DABFS takes into account directions and relative positions of nodes, besides the distance parameter, to determine a node's movement direction using Hamming distance and forwards warning messages through neighbor and best route discovery. Analytical and simulation results demonstrate that DABFS offers improved throughput and reduced packet loss rate and end-to-end delay, as compared with eminent routing protocols.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2019 Elsevier B.V.
- Bi-directional traffic
- Direction-based Greedy forwarding
- Routing protocols
- Vehicular ad hoc networks
- Warning message dissemination