Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most aggressive solid tumors for which treatment options and biomarkers are limited. Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) produced by both GBM and stromal cells are central in the inter-cellular communication that is taking place in the tumor bulk. As tumor sEVs are accessible in biofluids, recent reports have suggested that sEVs contain valuable biomarkers for GBM patient diagnosis and follow-up. The aim of the current study was to describe the protein content of sEVs produced by different GBM cell lines and patient-derived stem cells. Our results reveal that the content of the sEVs mirrors the phenotypic signature of the respective GBM cells, leading to the description of potential informative sEV-associated biomarkers for GBM subtyping, such as CD44. Overall, these data could assist future GBM in vitro studies and provide insights for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic methods as well as personalized treatment strategies.