Calcium phosphate coatings were directly deposited on carbon fabric cloths, using a novel method, sonoelectrochemical deposition, in aqueous electrolytes containing calcium and phosphate ions, at pH 4.7, and at a relatively low temperature of 50°C, with the aim of investigating the usefulness of the resulting composites for reconstruction of bone defects. The deposits were characterized with the help of infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Human osteoblast-like cells (MG63) were used to investigate the cell/biomaterial interaction in vitro. Results showed that the composition and the morphologies of phosphate deposits were dramatically influenced by the application of ultrasound, which appeared to offer a number of potential advantages over the simple electrochemical processes. In vitro MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt) assay confirmed the significant improvement in the cell attachment, and proliferation was because of the phosphate deposits prepared by sonoelectrodeposition rather than the traditional silent one.
Han, H., Mikhalovsky, S., Phillips, G., & Lloyd, A. (2007). Calcium phosphate sonoelectrodeposition on carbon fabrics and its effect on osteoblast cell viability in vitro. New Carbon Materials, 22(2), 121-125. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1872-5805(07)60012-2