Blended E85-diesel fuel droplet heating and evaporation

Nawar Al‐Esawi, Mansour Al Qubeissi, Reece Whitaker, Sergei Sazhin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The multi‐dimensional quasi‐discrete (MDQD) model is applied to the analysis of heating and evaporation of mixtures of E85 (85 vol. % ethanol and 15 vol. % gasoline) with diesel fuel, commonly known as ‘E85‐ diesel’ blends, using the universal quasi‐chemical functional group activity coefficients model for the
calculation of vapor pressure. The contribution of 119 components of E85‐diesel fuel blends is taken into account, but replaced with smaller number of components/quasi‐components, under conditions representative of diesel engines. Our results show that high fractions of E85‐diesel fuel blends have a
significant impact on the evolutions of droplet radii and surface temperatures. For instance, droplet lifetime and surface temperature for a blend of 50 vol. % E85 and 50 vol. % diesel are 23.2% and up to 3.4% less than those of pure diesel fuel, respectively. The application of the MDQD model has improved the
computational efficiency significantly with minimal sacrifice to accuracy. This approach leads to a saving of up to 86.4% of CPU time when reducing the 119 components to 16 components/quasi‐components without a sacrifice to the main features of the model.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2477–2488
Number of pages12
JournalEnergy & Fuels
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2019


  • Activity coefficient
  • Diesel
  • Ethanol
  • Evaporation
  • Fuel blends
  • Gasoline


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