Assessment of Cytocompatibility and AntiInflammatory (Inter)Actions of Genipin-Crosslinked Chitosan Powders

Simona Dimida, Matteo Santin, Tiziano Verri, Amilcare Barca, Christian Demitri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Chitosan is a polysaccharide commonly used, together with its derivatives, in the preparation of hydrogel formulations, scaffolds and films for tissue engineering applications. Chitosan can be used as such, but it is commonly stabilized by means of chemical crosslinkers. Genipin is one of the crosslinkers that has been considered that is a crystalline powder extracted from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides and processed to obtain an aglycon compound. Genipin is gaining interest in biological applications because of its natural origin and anti-inflammatory actions. In this paper, the ability of chitosan-based materials crosslinked with genipin to exert antiinflammation properties in applications such as bone regeneration was studied. Powders obtained
from chitosan–genipin scaffolds have been tested in order to mimic the natural degradation processes occurring during biomaterials implantation in vivo. The results from osteoblast-like cells showed that specific combinations of chitosan and genipin stimulate high permissiveness towards cells, with higher performance than the pure chitosan. In parallel, evidences from monocyte-like cells showed that the crosslinker, genipin, seems to promote slowing of the monocyte-macrophage transition at morphological level. This suggests a sort of modularity of pro-inflammatory versus
anti-inflammatory behavior of our chitosan-based biomaterials. Being both the cell types exposed to microscale powders, as an added value our results bring information on the cell–material interactions in the degradative dynamics of chitosan scaffold structures during the physiological resorption processes.
Original languageEnglish
Article number159
Pages (from-to)1-15
Number of pages15
JournalOpen Biology
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 8 Jul 2020

Bibliographical note

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited


  • chitosan
  • genipin
  • biomaterials
  • inflammation
  • cell–material interactions
  • Inflammation
  • Chitosan
  • Cell–material interactions
  • Biomaterials
  • Genipin


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