An exploration of nudging towards transformative environmental behaviour changes prior to a values-crystallization event

Rahel N Tening, Marie K Harder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Reduction of environmental problems needs durable transformative changes in behaviour, and developments in Transformative Learning are increasingly called for, to achieve them. Only recently has a method been demonstrated to routinely produce transformations in behaviour - a significant step forward - but they are not focused in specific thematic directions, and rarely environmental, which leaves the research need still unanswered. Here, we present an exploration of the use of that method (which involved values-crystallization of groups) with prior Nudging, with the aim of increasing the environmentally-themed transformed behaviours. The Nudging used was one open question about the environment in participants’ current roles, plus a short questionnaire about current environmental behaviours, which also provided baseline data. Comparison with 3–4-days post-event interviews revealed most of the reported transformative behaviours were indeed environmental, such as waste sorting, water and electricity conservation, found retained via further 14-56-days post-event interviews. These results, from two separate groups of participants, suggest that the Nudging_Plus_Values-crystallization approach may be useful for pro-environmental practitioners in sustainability. Furthermore, the process involved of influencing choice spaces via Nudging, in values-crystallization events, deserves further studies to confirm causation and understand linkages between Nudging, reflection, values-crystallization, and Transformative Learning because it is likely that the process can be easily transferred to many different types of behaviour change programs, which will be of interest to a wide range of researchers and practitioners.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere18689
Number of pages13
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 26 Jul 2023


  • Transformative behaviour change
  • Nudging
  • Transformative learning
  • WeValue in-situ
  • Pro-environmental behaviour


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