An adsorbent monolith device to augment the removal of uraemic toxins during haemodialysis

Susan Sandeman, Carol Howell, Gary Phillips, Yishan Zheng, Guy Standen, Robert Pletzenauer, Andrew Pletzenauer, Kolitha Basnayake, Boyd Owen, Stephen Holt, Sergey Mikhalovsky

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Adsorbents designed with porosity which allows the removal of protein bound and high molecular weight uraemic toxins may improve the effectiveness of haemodialysis treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD). A nanoporous activated carbon monolith prototype designed for direct blood contact was first assessed for its capacity to remove albumin bound marker toxins indoxyl sulphate (IS), p-cresyl sulphate (p-CS) and high molecular weight cytokine interleukin-6 in spiked healthy donor studies. Haemodialysis patient blood samples were then used to measure the presence of these markers in pre- and post-dialysis blood and their removal by adsorbent recirculation of post-dialysis blood samples. Nanopores (20-100 nm) were necessary for marker uraemic toxin removal during in vitro studies. Limited removal of IS and p-CS occurred during haemodialysis, whereas almost complete removal occurred following perfusion through the carbon monoliths suggesting a key role for such adsorbent therapies in CKD patient care.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1589-1597
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jun 2014

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© The Author(s) 2014. This article is published with open access at


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