Peralkaline granites and pegmatites are a prime repository of REE and HFSE, critical raw materials. Although it is accepted that magmatic processes are fundamental in concentrating these metals, the role of hydrothermal fluids in concentrating and fractionating these elements remains unclear. This paper investigates the global reproducibility of the magmatic-hydrothermal evolution of alkaline silica-saturated systems using alkali pyroxene and amphiboles from six alkaline complexes. These minerals contain significant amounts of REE and other HFSE, and pyroxene is stable throughout the magmatic and hydrothermal stages. Amphibole consists of mostly unzoned arfvedsonite, leakeite, and katophorite, while pyroxene is always aegirine. Two types of aegirine were defined. In all complexes, type-I aegirine is zoned; its core is enriched in Ca, REE, Zr, Hf, Sc and Sn, and the rims in Na, Fe3+ 36 and contain secondary rare-metal bearing minerals and fluid inclusions. Type-II aegirine replaces amphibole and is oscillatory zoned. We interpret the amphiboles and REE-rich cores of type-I aegirine to have grown during the magmatic stage, whereas the rims of REE-poorer type-I and II aegirine formed during the hydrothermal stage. During magmatic crystallization, REE intake into amphiboles and pyroxene as well as LREE-HREE fractionation were favored by their crystallographic properties and by competition among them and other minerals. During subsequent hydrothermal stages, REE and other HFSE were remobilized, locally reconcentrated and fractionated in mineral pseudomorphs and secondary pyroxene. These observations point out the importance of studying rock-forming minerals such as pyroxenes and amphiboles to unravel geological events controlled by common processes globally.
- Rare earth elements