Growing evidence indicates that adenosine receptors could be promising therapeutic targets in autoimmune diseases. Here we studied the role of adenosine receptors in controlling the course of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes in CD-1 mice was induced by multiple-low-dose-streptozotocin (MLDS) treatment and in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice by cyclophosphamide injection. The nonselective adenosine receptor agonist 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) prevented diabetes development in both MLDS-challenged mice and in cyclophosphamide-treated NOD mice. The effect of NECA was reversed by the selective A2B receptor antagonist N-(4-cyanophenyl)-2-[4-(2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-2,6-dioxo-1,3-dipropyl-1H-purin-8-yl)phenoxy]acetamide (MRS 1754). The selective A1 receptor agonist 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA) and A3 receptor agonist N6-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide (IB-MECA) were less efficacious in ameliorating the course of diabetes. NECA inhibited diabetes in A2A receptor KO mice and the selective A2A receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethyl-amino-5'-N-ethyl-carboxamidoadenosine (CGS21680) had no effect in normal mice, indicating a lack of role of A2A receptors. NECA failed to prevent cytokine-induced beta-cell death in vitro, but NECA strongly suppressed expression of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, MIP-1alpha, IL-12, and IFN-gamma in pancreata, endotoxin, or anti-CD3-stimulated splenic cells, and T helper 1 lymphocytes, indicating that the beneficial effect of NECA was due to immunomodulation. These results demonstrate that adenosine receptor ligands are potential candidates for the treatment of type 1 diabetes.
|Number of pages||10|
|Publication status||Published - 31 Aug 2007|