Acute effects of a single exercise class on appetite, energy intake and mood. Is there a time of day effect?

M. Maraki, F. Tsofliou, Yannis Pitsiladis, Dalia Malkova, N. Mutrie, S. Higgins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of a single exercise class on appetite sensations, energy intake and mood, and to determine if there was a time of day effect. Twelve healthy, young, normal weight females, who were non-regular exercisers, participated in four trials: morning control, morning exercise, evening control and evening exercise. Exercise trials were a one-hour class of aerobic and muscle conditioning exercise of varying intensities, to music. Control trials were a one-hour rest. Ratings of perceived exertion were significantly greater during the warm-up and muscle conditioning parts of the morning exercise trial compared to those of the evening exercise trial. Although both exercise trials, compared to control trials, produced an increase in appetite sensations, they did not alter energy intake and produced a decrease in 'relative' energy intake. In relation to mood, both exercise trials increased positive affect and decreased negative affect. These results suggest that a single exercise class, representative of that offered by many sports centres, regardless of whether it is performed in the morning or evening produces a short-term negative energy balance and improves mood in normal weight women. However, when this type of exercise was performed in the morning it was perceived to require more effort.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)272-278
Number of pages7
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 31 Dec 2005


  • appetite
  • exercise
  • mood
  • energy intake
  • energy balance
  • aerobic class


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