Method: A narrative synthesis of 57 papers including systematic reviews, narrative reviews, meta-analyses and primary research. Literature was searched in Cochrane, Campbell Collaboration, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsychINFO and Medline. The review was undertaken to promote understanding of the causes and range of inequalities, as well as how to reduce inequalities.
Results: LGBTI people are more likely to experience health inequalities due to heteronormativity or heterosexism, minority stress, experiences of victimisation and discrimination, compounded by stigma. Inequalities pertaining to LGBTI health(care) vary depending on gender, age, income and disability as well as between LGBTI groupings. Gaps in the literature remain around how these factors intersect to influence health, with further large-scale research needed particularly regarding trans and intersex people.
Conclusion: Health inequalities can be addressed via changes in policy, research and in practice through health services that accommodate the needs of LGBTI people. With improved training to address gaps in their knowledge of LGBTI health and healthcare, health professionals should work in collaboration with LGBTI people to address a range of barriers that prevent access to care. Through structural change combined with increased knowledge and understanding, services can potentially become more inclusive and equally accessible to all.
Bibliographical note© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/
4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.doi:10.1093/
- Health inequalities
- LGBTI people
- Health Professionals
- School of Health Sciences - Prof of Public Health and Health Promotion
- Centre for Arts and Wellbeing
- Centre for Transforming Sexuality and Gender
- Centre of Resilience for Social Justice
- Long-term Conditions and Rehabilitation Research and Enterprise Group
- Public Health and Wellbeing Research and Enterprise Group