A review of lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans and intersex (LGBTI) health and healthcare inequalities

Laetitia Zeeman, Nigel Sherriff, Kath Browne, Massimo Mirandola, Ruth Davis,

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans and intersex (LGBTI) people experience significant health inequalities. Located within a European Commission funded pilot project, this paper presents a review of the health inequalities faced by LGBTI people and the barriers health professionals encounter when providing care.

Method: A narrative synthesis of 57 papers including systematic reviews, narrative reviews, meta-analyses and primary research. Literature was searched in Cochrane, Campbell Collaboration, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsychINFO and Medline. The review was undertaken to promote understanding of the causes and range of inequalities, as well as how to reduce inequalities.

Results: LGBTI people are more likely to experience health inequalities due to heteronormativity or heterosexism, minority stress, experiences of victimisation and discrimination, compounded by stigma. Inequalities pertaining to LGBTI health(care) vary depending on gender, age, income and disability as well as between LGBTI groupings. Gaps in the literature remain around how these factors intersect to influence health, with further large-scale research needed particularly regarding trans and intersex people.

Conclusion: Health inequalities can be addressed via changes in policy, research and in practice through health services that accommodate the needs of LGBTI people. With improved training to address gaps in their knowledge of LGBTI health and healthcare, health professionals should work in collaboration with LGBTI people to address a range of barriers that prevent access to care. Through structural change combined with increased knowledge and understanding, services can potentially become more inclusive and equally accessible to all.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)974–980
JournalEuropean Journal of Public Health
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 31 Oct 2018

Bibliographical note

© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/
4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.doi:10.1093/


  • Health inequalities
  • LGBTI people
  • Review
  • Causes
  • Barriers
  • Health Professionals
  • Healthcare


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