A reference architecture for natural language generation systems

C. Mellish, D. Scott, Lynne Cahill, Roger Evans, D. Paiva, M. Reape

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We present the RAGS (Reference Architecture for Generation Systems) framework: a specification of an abstract Natural Language Generation (NLG) system architecture to support sharing, re-use, comparison and evaluation of NLG technologies. We argue that the evidence from a survey of actual NLG systems calls for a different emphasis in a reference proposal from that seen in similar initiatives in information extraction and multimedia interfaces. We introduce the framework itself, in particular the two-level data model that allows us to support the complex data requirements of NLG systems in a flexible and coherent fashion, and describe our efforts to validate the framework through a range of implementations.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-34
Number of pages34
JournalNatural Language Engineering
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2006

Bibliographical note

© 2006 Cambridge University Press


  • Natural language generation systems


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