A Practical Recuperated Split Cycle Engine for Low Emissions and High Efficiency

Nicholas Owen, Fabrizio Treccarichi, Andrew Atkins, Anoop Selvaraj, David Barnes, Tanzi Besant, Robert Morgan

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceeding with ISSN or ISBNConference contribution with ISSN or ISBN

Abstract

The Recuperated Split Cycle Engine is a new type of ICE, offering a step change in efficiency and tailpipe emissions. It targets the heavy duty, long-haul sector (trucks, off-highway, rail, shipping), where electrification is most challenging, and distributed generation, where capacity is required to support rising electrification. The engine separates cold (induction, compression) and hot (combustion, expansion) parts of the cycle; waste exhaust heat is recovered between them via a recuperator, as in a recuperated gas turbine. Recent research presented at this conference [1] shows that the sonic airflows seen in the induction event give rise to extraordinary fuel mixing and clean, cool combustion, with potential for after-treated emission levels between SULEV and zero-impact (either unmeasurable or below ambient). Recuperation and thermal insulation of the hot cylinder (both feasible within the capability of common materials) also enable high thermal efficiency, with a flatter efficiency map than a conventional ICE. Combining the two attributes, and introducing sustainable fuels, places this readily manufactured, affordable technology on a par with battery-electric and fuel cell propulsion. Results from simulation to optimise the concept are described. A Ricardo WAVE model was built, with validation of key inputs such as valve breathing, heat transfer and burn-rates from relevant experimental research data. The model was used to develop the cycle around three concepts - a basic layout, “ThermoPower”, was shown to be capable of over 10% fuel saving; “Wet ThermoPower” uses water injection as a compression coolant for greater efficiency, while the ultimate “CryoPower” injects Liquid Nitrogen for quasi-isothermal compression and charge dilution. The optimisation process and practical details are described, especially the development of the critical recuperator, which is subjected to high pressure and temperature; management of its thermal expansion and manufacturing process have been optimised to minimise add-cost over a current ICE bill of materials.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication14th International Conference on Engines & Vehicles
Place of PublicationUnited States
PublisherSAE International
Pages1-14
Number of pages14
Volume2019-September
EditionSeptember
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 9 Sep 2019
Event14th International Conference on Engines & Vehicles - Capri, Italy
Duration: 15 Sep 201919 Sep 2019
https://www.combustioninstitute.org/ci-event/the-14th-international-conference-on-engines-vehicles/

Publication series

NameSAE Technical Papers
PublisherSAE International
ISSN (Print)0148-7191
ISSN (Electronic)2688-3627

Conference

Conference14th International Conference on Engines & Vehicles
CountryItaly
Period15/09/1919/09/19
Internet address

Fingerprint

Engines
Recuperators
Thermoelectric power
Fuel cells
Electric batteries
Water injection
Thermal insulation
Distributed power generation
Liquid nitrogen
Engine cylinders
Freight transportation
Coolants
Trucks
Propulsion
Dilution
Thermal expansion
Gas turbines
Rails
Compaction
Heat transfer

Cite this

Owen, N., Treccarichi, F., Atkins, A., Selvaraj, A., Barnes, D., Besant, T., & Morgan, R. (2019). A Practical Recuperated Split Cycle Engine for Low Emissions and High Efficiency. In 14th International Conference on Engines & Vehicles (September ed., Vol. 2019-September, pp. 1-14). [2019-24-0190] (SAE Technical Papers ). United States: SAE International. https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-24-0190
Owen, Nicholas ; Treccarichi, Fabrizio ; Atkins, Andrew ; Selvaraj, Anoop ; Barnes, David ; Besant, Tanzi ; Morgan, Robert. / A Practical Recuperated Split Cycle Engine for Low Emissions and High Efficiency. 14th International Conference on Engines & Vehicles. Vol. 2019-September September. ed. United States : SAE International, 2019. pp. 1-14 (SAE Technical Papers ).
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abstract = "The Recuperated Split Cycle Engine is a new type of ICE, offering a step change in efficiency and tailpipe emissions. It targets the heavy duty, long-haul sector (trucks, off-highway, rail, shipping), where electrification is most challenging, and distributed generation, where capacity is required to support rising electrification. The engine separates cold (induction, compression) and hot (combustion, expansion) parts of the cycle; waste exhaust heat is recovered between them via a recuperator, as in a recuperated gas turbine. Recent research presented at this conference [1] shows that the sonic airflows seen in the induction event give rise to extraordinary fuel mixing and clean, cool combustion, with potential for after-treated emission levels between SULEV and zero-impact (either unmeasurable or below ambient). Recuperation and thermal insulation of the hot cylinder (both feasible within the capability of common materials) also enable high thermal efficiency, with a flatter efficiency map than a conventional ICE. Combining the two attributes, and introducing sustainable fuels, places this readily manufactured, affordable technology on a par with battery-electric and fuel cell propulsion. Results from simulation to optimise the concept are described. A Ricardo WAVE model was built, with validation of key inputs such as valve breathing, heat transfer and burn-rates from relevant experimental research data. The model was used to develop the cycle around three concepts - a basic layout, “ThermoPower”, was shown to be capable of over 10{\%} fuel saving; “Wet ThermoPower” uses water injection as a compression coolant for greater efficiency, while the ultimate “CryoPower” injects Liquid Nitrogen for quasi-isothermal compression and charge dilution. The optimisation process and practical details are described, especially the development of the critical recuperator, which is subjected to high pressure and temperature; management of its thermal expansion and manufacturing process have been optimised to minimise add-cost over a current ICE bill of materials.",
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Owen, N, Treccarichi, F, Atkins, A, Selvaraj, A, Barnes, D, Besant, T & Morgan, R 2019, A Practical Recuperated Split Cycle Engine for Low Emissions and High Efficiency. in 14th International Conference on Engines & Vehicles. September edn, vol. 2019-September, 2019-24-0190, SAE Technical Papers , SAE International, United States, pp. 1-14, 14th International Conference on Engines & Vehicles, Italy, 15/09/19. https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-24-0190

A Practical Recuperated Split Cycle Engine for Low Emissions and High Efficiency. / Owen, Nicholas; Treccarichi, Fabrizio; Atkins, Andrew; Selvaraj, Anoop; Barnes, David; Besant, Tanzi; Morgan, Robert.

14th International Conference on Engines & Vehicles. Vol. 2019-September September. ed. United States : SAE International, 2019. p. 1-14 2019-24-0190 (SAE Technical Papers ).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceeding with ISSN or ISBNConference contribution with ISSN or ISBN

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AB - The Recuperated Split Cycle Engine is a new type of ICE, offering a step change in efficiency and tailpipe emissions. It targets the heavy duty, long-haul sector (trucks, off-highway, rail, shipping), where electrification is most challenging, and distributed generation, where capacity is required to support rising electrification. The engine separates cold (induction, compression) and hot (combustion, expansion) parts of the cycle; waste exhaust heat is recovered between them via a recuperator, as in a recuperated gas turbine. Recent research presented at this conference [1] shows that the sonic airflows seen in the induction event give rise to extraordinary fuel mixing and clean, cool combustion, with potential for after-treated emission levels between SULEV and zero-impact (either unmeasurable or below ambient). Recuperation and thermal insulation of the hot cylinder (both feasible within the capability of common materials) also enable high thermal efficiency, with a flatter efficiency map than a conventional ICE. Combining the two attributes, and introducing sustainable fuels, places this readily manufactured, affordable technology on a par with battery-electric and fuel cell propulsion. Results from simulation to optimise the concept are described. A Ricardo WAVE model was built, with validation of key inputs such as valve breathing, heat transfer and burn-rates from relevant experimental research data. The model was used to develop the cycle around three concepts - a basic layout, “ThermoPower”, was shown to be capable of over 10% fuel saving; “Wet ThermoPower” uses water injection as a compression coolant for greater efficiency, while the ultimate “CryoPower” injects Liquid Nitrogen for quasi-isothermal compression and charge dilution. The optimisation process and practical details are described, especially the development of the critical recuperator, which is subjected to high pressure and temperature; management of its thermal expansion and manufacturing process have been optimised to minimise add-cost over a current ICE bill of materials.

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Owen N, Treccarichi F, Atkins A, Selvaraj A, Barnes D, Besant T et al. A Practical Recuperated Split Cycle Engine for Low Emissions and High Efficiency. In 14th International Conference on Engines & Vehicles. September ed. Vol. 2019-September. United States: SAE International. 2019. p. 1-14. 2019-24-0190. (SAE Technical Papers ). https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-24-0190