A discussion of Kretchmar's elements of competition

Richard Royce

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In a recent contribution to this journal Kretchmar attempted to apply and to explore Husserl’s transcendental phenomenological method in relation to clarifying, in the context of sport particularly, the main features of competition. He concludes with the strong claim that competition is unintelligible unless understood in relation to the four elements of plurality, comparison, normativity, and disputation. Roughly, the idea is that competition needs to be understood as a context in which more than one competitor is involved; where competitors are compared; that comparisons are evaluations of their performance / entry in the competition; and that the expected result of the latter is a matter of dispute between or among contestants. In investigating these points some refinement of this basic outline is attempted against occasional reference to others who in the past made similar claims about the conditions of competition. I conclude that Kretchmar’s claims are mistaken.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)178-191
Number of pages14
JournalSport, Ethics and Philosophy
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 8 Sept 2016

Bibliographical note

This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Sport, Ethics and Philosophy on 08/09/2016, available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/17511321.2016.1194885


  • Competition
  • sport
  • Kretchmar
  • elements


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