A clinical evaluation of scapular dyskinesis among professional bus drivers with unilateral upper quadrant musculoskeletal pain

Wipawee Satasuk, Patraporn Sitilertpisan, Leonard Henry Joseph, Aatit Paungmali, Ubon Pirunsan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Professional bus drivers report a high prevalence of upper quadrant musculoskeletal pain which could be associated with scapular dyskinesis (SD). However, the evidence for valid and reliable screening methods for this condition is limited as SD among bus drivers is an emerging area of research. Therefore, the main aim of the study was to investigate the reliability of dynamic scapular motion test (DSMT) using video analysis as an accurate method to evaluate SD and to identify patterns of SD among bus drivers. Methods: In total, 32 bus drivers from a private bus company with unilateral upper quadrant musculoskeletal pain participated in the study. The DSMT was conducted and the SD was captured in the video during shoulder flexion–abduction movements. Two investigators analyzed the video recordings and identified the patterns of SD. The intra- and interrater reliability were determined using the percentage of agreement and weighted Kappa coefficients (Kw). Descriptive analysis was used to examine the patterns of SD. Findings: The intra- and interrater reliability of DSMT using video analysis were excellent (Kw coefficient: 0.762–0.878 and 0.87–1.00, respectively). About 56.2% and 53.1% of bus drivers presented SD with the shoulder flexion and abduction movements during DSMT. Medial border prominence (Type II pattern of SD) was identified as the common pattern of SD. Conclusion/Application to practice: The DSMT using video analysis showed excellent intra- and interrater reliability to evaluate SD. Occupational health practitioners can consider DSMT using video analysis to identify SD among people with upper quadrant musculoskeletal pain at the workplace.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)460-466
Number of pages7
JournalWorkplace Health and Safety
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 8 May 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information: The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This study was supported by an internal university research grant by the Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences and the Graduate School, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand, and the Rising Star Funding Award by the Research and Enterprise Office, University of Brighton, the United Kingdom.


  • bus drivers
  • dynamic scapular motion
  • musculoskeletal pain
  • reliability
  • scapular dyskinesis


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