2D Titanium Carbide (Ti3C2Tx ) in Accommodating Intraocular Lens Design

Emma J. Ward, Joseph Lacey, Cyril Crua, Marcus K. Dymond, Kathleen Maleski, Kanit Hantanasirisakul, Yury Gogotsi, Susan Sandeman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


While intraocular lenses (IOL) are used to restore visual acuity in cataract patients, they are limited in their development as no clinically available lens can effectively mimic the accommodative function of the eye's natural lens. The optoelectronic properties of 2D transition metal carbides and/or nitrides (MXenes), including high electronic conductivity, optical transparency, flexibility, biocompatibility, and hydrophilicity, suggest potential use within an accommodating IOL. This study investigates the use of Ti3C2Tx (MXene) as a transparent, conductive electrode to allow changes in optical power. Ti3C2Tx is synthesized and spin‐coated on hydrophobic acrylate IOLs, achieving a sheet resistance ranging from 0.2–1.0 kΩ sq−1 with 50–80% transmittance in the visible region. Human lens epithelial and monocytic cells show no cytotoxic nor inflammatory response to the coated lenses. An adjustable focus test cell is fabricated using a liquid crystal (LC) layer sandwiched between Ti3C2Tx coatings on a solid support. Molecular reorientation of the LC layer, through an applied electric field, results in changes in optical power as objects viewed through the test cell appeared in and out of focus. This study is the first step toward the use of Ti3C2Tx within an accommodative IOL design through demonstration of reversible, controlled, adjustable focus.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2000841
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number47
Publication statusPublished - 10 May 2020

Bibliographical note

© 2020 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and repro-duction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


  • Accommodating intraocular lens
  • Liquid crystals
  • MXene
  • nanomaterials
  • Ophthalmic medical device
  • Optoelectronic materials
  • accommodating intraocular lens
  • ophthalmic medical device
  • liquid crystals
  • optoelectronic materials


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